FTP in general has a long and sad history of security problems. If you need to run an ftp server, you need to keep careful track of vulnerabilites and exploits that may make for a very unhappy day. Things have gotten better in recent years, but just as I started this article I checked the wu-ftpd site and found a fairly recent problem noted, and an even more recent problem discussed at proftpd.org. Makes you want to forget ftp entirely, doesn't it?
I do think the more widespread availablility of ssh (hence scp and sftp) has made anything but anonymous ftp less necessary, and that does help - at least there aren't as many unencrypted logins flying around.
The main problem with ftp is that it almost always runs with root privilege, at least part of the time. It needs to bind to low ports (20 and 21) at a minimum, which requires root, and there are probably other points where it needs more than ordinary user abilities. Modern implementations try to avoid being root when they don't need to, but of course that's not perfect. Other damage limiting attempts involve running in a chroot jail.
Note there is a bit of a difference between the chroot options often present in ftp configuration files and a real unix level chroot. To use the latter, you need to set up a number of files and directories to include libraries, vital commands and files like /etc/passwd and more. The "chroot" options for ftp daemons mean that an ftp login can't cd above the specified point. These are similar restrictions, but technically quite different.
This thread on FTP guest access chroot not working may be useful.
SCO ftp has a annoying little problem where syslog fills up with ftpd messages. This is caused by their "cleantmp" program removing symbolic link "/usr/tmp/ftpd". See I get "ftpd[xyzx]: #2 open of pid file failed: No such file or directory"..
There are many, many ftp server programs available. I found a short list at FTP Daemon Options for Linux and I'm sure there are many more. However, the most commonly found are wu-ftp and proftp (though vsftp is becoming more popular). Any ftp daemon is going to have its share of features and quirks, and of course its own security measures. Most all will provide at least basic security like setting umask and determining who can or cannot use the server. I won't be covering everything in what follows, but will hit the highlights.
One simple security step with any ftp server is not to help by advertising. Here's a talkative server just begging for you to go look up its vulnerabilities:
ProFTPD 1.2.4 Server (FTP) [ftp.xyz.com]
If you add "ServerIdent Off" to the proftd.conf, it's a bit less chatty:
220 ftp.xyz.com FTP server ready.
For wu-ftp, the file is "ftpaccess", and you want 'greeting terse' or 'greeting brief'.
You surely also want to disallow certain users from using ftp. It would usually be a very poor idea to let root have an ftp login, for example. With both wu-ftp and proftp (and many other ftp's), you list disallowed users in /etc/ftpusers. Proftpd disallows root by default, regardless of ftpusers. If you did "RootLogin on" in proftpd.conf, you'd still need to remove root from /etc/ftpusers should you need this.
You can also restrict to certain ip's:
proftpd.conf: <Limit LOGIN> Order Allow,Deny Allow 192.168.2.8, mydomain.com, anotherdomain.net, Deny from all </Limit> wu-ftpd ftpaccess: (from man page) deny <addrglob> <message_file> Always deny access to host(s) matching <addrglob>. <message_file> is displayed. <addrglob> may be "!nameserved" to deny access to sites without a working nameserver. It may also be the name of a file, starting with a slash ('/'), which contains additional address globs, as well as in the form address:netmask or address/cidr.
To prevent password guessing, you may set limits on login attempts:
proftpd.conf: MaxLoginAttempts 4 wu-ftpd ftpaccess: loginfails 3
You can also do things like limiting the total number of ftp sessions, though your ability to do that will have to be external if the daemon is started on demand by inetd or xinetd (xinetd includes feature for limiting connections). If run standalone, the main instances spawns off children to handle connections, and can limit those as desired.
Although not strictly a security issue, you can set limits on the amount of data or number of files that can be transferred, how long people can remain logged on, etc. See "man ftpaccess" for wu-ftpd and https://www.proftpd.org/docs/directives/linked/by-name.html for proftpd.conf.
To have anonymous ftp, you usually need a little bit of setup. If you don't have an "ftp" user, you'll need to create that. Note that ftp servers allow "anonymous" as a synonym for ftp. That's from a config setting in proftpd.conf:
proftpd.conf: UserAlias anonymous ftp
No special definition is necessary for wu-ftpd.
For most ftp's, you need a /var/ftp/ directory for anonymous ftp to work. The configuration files usually have examples of what you have to turn on for anonymous ftp.
There are configuration limits here:
proftpd.conf: MaxClients 10 "Maximum anon users reached, try again later" wu-ftpd ftpaccess: limit anon 120 SaSu|Any2000-0600 /etc/msg.toomuchload limit anon 30 Any /etc/msg.toomuchload # Allows more users on weekends and 8PM to 6AM
Apparently sftp can be setup for anonymous use also (
(link dead, sorry)
, though I've never seen it done. That said, a
lot of sites don't even turn on sftp at all: it's a setting in the
Subsystem sftp /usr/libexec/sftp-server
If you are going to allow uploads, you'll want to set permissions on uploaded files; something like:
upload /u/ftp /incoming yes ftp group 0044 nodirs
in ftpaccess is common.
My current favorite is lftp. My least favorite is Internet Explorer, though I will often have clents use that if I need them to ftp somewhere from Windows. Note that they can provide a login and password: use ftp://usr:firstname.lastname@example.org, so you can use that even for an ftp to a user directory on your network.
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More Articles by Tony Lawrence © 2009-11-07 Tony Lawrence
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